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write a paraphrase of each of the following passages. From a neurological perspe
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write a paraphrase of each of the following passages. From a neurological perspective, social media affects different brain functions in unique ways. It contains many combinations of stimuli that can trigger different reactions, and because of this, social media’s effects on the brain appear in a variety of ways.
Social networking sites (SNSs), such as Facebook, provide abundant social comparison opportunities. Given the widespread use of SNSs, the purpose of the present set of studies was to examine the impact of chronic and temporary exposure to social media-based social comparison information on self-esteem. Using a correlational approach, Study 1 examined whether frequent Facebook use is associated with lower trait self-esteem. Indeed, the results showed that participants who used Facebook most often had poorer trait self-esteem, and this was mediated by greater exposure to upward social comparisons on social media.
Although the evidence is still limited, a growing number of studies emphasized that addictive use of video games, along with other behavioral addictions, is characterized by addiction criteria, such as salience (preoccupation with the behavior), mood modification (performing the behavior to relieve/reduce aversive emotional states), tolerance (increasing engagement in the behavior over time in order to attain the initial mood modifying effects), withdrawal (experiencing psychological and physical discomfort when the behavior is Addictive Use of Social Media and Video Games 4 reduced or prohibited), conflict (putting off or neglecting social, recreational, work, educational, household, and/or other activities as well as one’s own and others’ needs because of the behavior) and relapse (unsuccessfully attempting to cut down or control the behavior) (Griffiths, 2005; Kuss et al., 2014; Ko, 2014). However, to date, studies assessing behavioral and neurobiological similarities between substance-related addictions and addictive use of social media are scarce (Andreassen, 2015; Griffiths, Kuss, & Demetrovics, 2014).
Although online dating users are limited in the types of cues available for self-presentation, they are able to spend time creating and revising their profiles in order to put their best foot forward. That is, they are able to tailor their selfpresentations online in ways they cannot face-to-face. Users writing their profiles have competing motivations — first, to present themselves as attractively as possible, in order to draw the attention of potential dates, and second, to present themselves accurately, so that people who are attracted to them online will still find them attractive when they eventually meet. Fiore and Donath (2004) suggest that online dating users might consider a certain amount of exaggeration necessary if they perceive, as per the popular conception, that everyone else is exaggerating — then they must exaggerate as well just to maintain equal footing with competitors. Indeed, Hancock and colleagues (2007) found that small exaggerations about height, weight, and age in online dating profiles were common.
Goffman (1957) describes the process of self-presentation as a kind of performance. He distinguishes between the cues we “give” intentionally, as part of the deliberate performance, and those we “give off” unintentionally. Building on these notions and the concept of signaling from biology, Donath (1998; forthcoming) portrays the online performance of self as a series of signals we attempt to give in order to convey a particular impression to others. Everything from the user name (or “handle”) to the use of language or the choice of a photograph can signal certain qualities in online interaction; some signals “give” intended meaning while simultaneously “giving off” additional unintended information.
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