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Explain the pathophysiology behind the development of this type of anemia.
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In responding to two of your peers, discuss other potential therapies available for this individual. Explain the pathophysiology behind the development of this type of anemia.
Pernicious anemia is characterized by an absence of intrinsic factor (IF) and vitamin B12 deficiency (McCance & Huether, 2019, p. 932). The gastric parietal cells secrete IF, which is a protein transporter. IF is essential for vitamin B12 absorption because it binds with vitamin B12 in the small gut. Autoimmune gastritis damages parietal cells and halts the secretion of IF, leading to a dysfunction in vitamin B12 absorption. Anemia results when there is a deficiency in vitamin B12 leading to ineffective erythrocyte DNA synthesis, causing diminished red blood cell production (McCance & Huether, 2019, p. 932).
The cause of pernicious anemia is linked to congenital IF deficiency and autoimmune responses. Autoimmune polyendocrinopahty, surgical removal of the stomach, or resection of the ileum can lead to chronic gastritis (McCance & Huether, 2019, p. 932). Additionally, an increased demand for vitamin B12 can result in pernicious anemia such as with pregnancy, chronic infection, hyperthyroidism, and disseminated cancer. Pernicious anemia is fatal if left untreated. Treatment for pernicious anemia is lifelong injections of B12 (McCance & Huether, 2019, p. 933). Initial injections are administered weekly until B12 levels are sufficient, then injections are administered monthly for maintenance. ONE RES
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